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10th anniversary of the Euro-Mediterranean partnership - Barcelona summit conclusions

27-28 november 2005

The Euro-Mediterranean Summit to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the Barcelona Process reached agreement on a Five-Year Work Programme for the further development of the partnership as well as on a Code of Conduct on Countering Terrorism. The Work Programme will allow work in the regional, Euro-Med framework to progress in full synergy and complementarity with the bilateral Action Plans developed under the European Neighbourhood Policy. And the Code of Conduct, bringing Europeans, Arabs and Israelis together around one agenda, highlights our common commitment to fighting terrorism in all its dimensions.


On the 10th anniversary of the adoption of the Barcelona Declaration in November 1995, the leaders of the Euro-Mediterranean partnership pledge their renewed commitment to the objective of achieving a common area of peace, stability and prosperity in the Mediterranean region through ongoing dialogue, exchange and co-operation. They reaffirm that this objective requires a comprehensive approach to enhancing security, the just resolution of regional conflicts, strengthening democracy, the rule of law and respect for human rights, sustainable and balanced economic and social development, measures to combat poverty and exclusion, and the promotion of greater understanding between cultures and peoples.

The partners recognise that only determined action will enable the region’s young people to fulfil their aspirations of a better future.

They reaffirm their commitment to the principles and objectives of the Barcelona Declaration and re-emphasise the importance of co-ownership of the Process, which remains the cornerstone of the Euromed Partnership. They reiterate that their partnership should serve as a framework for building regional co-operation and understanding.

The Barcelona Process provides an important contribution to promoting progress in the Middle East Peace Process and to furthering mutual understanding, even if it is not the forum in which a settlement will be reached. They call for the rapid and full implementation of the Road Map and encourage the parties to continue on the path of direct dialogue and negotiation in the fulfilment of the vision of two states, a safe and secure Israel and a viable, sovereign, contiguous, democratic Palestine, living side by side in peace and security. Final status issues have to be agreed by the parties.

Partners reaffirm their commitment to achieve a just, comprehensive and lasting settlement consistent with the Road Map and principles of the Madrid Conference including land for peace and based on relevant UNSC resolutions, including 242, 338 and 1397 and take note of recent regional developments and initiatives, including the Beirut Arab Peace Initiative.

Partners also call for the reinvigoration of efforts to promote progress in the Middle East Peace Process on all tracks, Palestinian, Syrian and Lebanese.

They recognise that major changes have occurred in the European Union and internationally since the Barcelona Declaration was signed in 1995. The EU has launched the European Neighbourhood Policy to reinforce and complement the Barcelona Process. The EU has also developed the European Security and Defence Policy on which a dialogue has been initiated with Mediterranean partners. They also recall Turkey’s special situation as a candidate country and a member of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership.

The partners make the following collective commitments:

1) To strive collectively to achieve peace in the region.

2) To strengthen democracy, expanding participation in political life, public affairs and decision making, and further promoting gender equality. To enhance respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms, including freedom of expression in accordance with their international obligations. To continue maintaining and ensuring the independence of the judiciary and expand access to justice to all. In this context the EU will establish a substantial financial Facility to support willing Mediterranean partners’ in carrying out their reforms, taking into account that successful reforms must develop from within the societies of the region.

3) To enhance the security of all citizens, particularly through more effective counter-terrorism policies and deeper co-operation to dismantle all terrorist activities, to protect potential targets, to manage the consequences of attacks, and to implement the Code of Conduct on Countering Terrorism they have agreed today. To condemn terrorism, wherever it is committed, without qualification and reject all attempts to associate any religion or culture with terrorism
4) In the context of the implementation of the chapter on political and security partnership:

to promote regional security by acting, inter alia, in favour of nuclear, chemical and biological non-proliferation through adherence to and compliance with a combination of international and regional non-proliferation regimes, and arms control and disarmament agreements such as NPT, CWC, BWC, CTBT and/or regional arrangements such as weapons free zones including their verification regimes, as well as by fulfilling in good faith their commitments under arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation conventions.

The parties shall pursue a mutually and effectively verifiable Middle East Zone free of weapons of mass destruction, nuclear, chemical and biological, and their delivery systems.

Furthermore the parties will consider practical steps to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons as well as excessive accumulation of conventional arms.

Refrain from developing military capacity beyond their legitimate defence requirements, at the same time reaffirming their resolve to achieve the same degree of security and mutual confidence with the lowest possible levels of troops and weaponry and adherence to CCW.

Promote conditions likely to develop good-neighbourly relations among themselves and support process aimed at stability, security, prosperity and regional and sub-regional cooperation.

Consider any confidence and security-building measures that could be taken between the parties with a view to the creation of an “area of peace and stability in the Mediterranean”, including the long term possibility of establishing a Euro-Mediterranean pact to that end.

5) To contribute to achieving an area of shared economic development by: fulfilling the undertaking to achieve a Euro-Mediterranean free trade area by 2010; promoting broad-based equitable sustainable economic development and employment by inter alia pursuing economic reform, supporting efforts to promote domestic and attract foreign investment in the region, enhancing public financial management, strengthening the role of the private sector, improving legal systems, reinforcing industrial cooperation, enhancing equitable access to basic services; developing integrated transport, energy and telecommunications networks and encouraging the objective of establishment of a Euro-med Energy Market. To assess in December 2006 the possibility of the incorporation of an EIB majority owned subsidiary dedicated to the Mediterranean partner countries, on the basis of an evaluation of FEMIP’s performance. In this context they welcome the EIB’s intention to provide a further tranche of financial assistance to the region in 2006.

6) To develop the Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development and review the
implementation of all relevant regional agreements and action plans. To endorse a feasible timetable to de-pollute the Mediterranean Sea by 2020, while providing appropriate financial resources and technical support to implement it, using the Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development and exploring possible areas for co-operation in this regard with UNEP.

7) To reinforce and support the efforts of all countries in the region to meet the Millennium Development Goals, particularly in the areas of education, vocational training and of gender equality, given the importance of human development and knowledge-based societies to modernisation. To significantly enhance national efforts to meet agreed targets for standards of education across the region, through developing educational systems, administration and management, with a particular focus on creating skilled workforces. In this context partners will increase significantly resources devoted to education.

8) To create an area of mutual cooperation on migration, social integration, justice, and security.

9) To strengthen the management of regular migratory flows in a comprehensive manner beneficial to the peoples of both shores of the Mediterranean, respecting migrants’ rights. To intensify cooperation on all aspects of illegal immigration between all parties concerned, including human trafficking, reflecting shared responsibility and solidarity.

10) To act jointly against racism, xenophobia and intolerance, stressing respect for all religions, rejecting extremist views which attempt to divide us and incite violence and hatred, and joining together to promote common understanding. To improve intercultural dialogue aiming at promoting understanding, building on our cultural heritage, including through the work of the Anna Lindh Euro-Mediterranean Foundation for the Dialogue Between Cultures, and in support of the UN Alliance of Civilisations.

11) To strengthen dialogue between governmental and non-governmental actors across the Euro-Mediterranean region, including through the promotion of dialogue between Parliamentarians within the Euro-Mediterranean Parliamentary Assembly, contacts between civil society associations, youth, trade unions, business and professional associations and cooperation between regional and local administrations.
The partners recall the application presented by the Islamic Republic of Mauritania to join the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership which will be given consideration in due time.

Expressing their renewed determination to drive the Process forward in pursuit of a better future for the youth of the region and fully implement the principles of the 1995 Barcelona Declaration, the leaders of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership commit to work towards the objectives contained in the attached work plan over the next five years and to regularly review progress against these undertakings.


1. The aim of this programme is to implement the objectives agreed by partners at the 10th Anniversary Euro-Mediterranean Summit in accordance with the Barcelona Declaration of 1995. This work plan is designed to provide the basis for Euro-Mediterranean cooperation for the next five years. It aims to deliver results that will have a positive impact for all citizens in the region, thereby increasing the visibility of the Partnership. This work programme, as well as the implementation of the Association Agreements and the European Neighbourhood Policy Action Plans, will be supported through technical and financial assistance provided through the MEDA Programme, the future European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI), bilateral contributions from Member States, FEMIP and other relevant financial instruments, at levels consistent with the high ambition of our Euro-Mediterranean Partnership.

Political and Security Partnership

2. To help realise a region of peace, security, prosperity and opportunity for our present and future generations, we will continue to work together to reach a just, comprehensive and lasting settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict. We will also promote a peaceful, stable and secure Euro-Mediterranean Region through partnership-building measures, joint regional projects, sustainable development and strengthened rule of law, democracy and respect for human rights.

3. Moreover, members of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership will strive to achieve their mutual commitments in this area including through measures that:

a) Extend political pluralism and participation by citizens, particularly women and youth, through the active promotion of a fair and competitive political environment, including fair and free elections;

b) Enable citizens to participate in decision-making at the local level including by increasing the decentralisation of governance and the management of public affairs and delivery of public services;

c) Increase the participation of women in decision-making including in political, social, cultural and economic positions;

d) Ensure freedom of expression and association by facilitating the work of independent
information providers and increasing access to information for all citizens;

e) Foster the role of civil society in accordance with national legislation as appropriate and enhance its capability through improved interaction with governments and parliaments.

f) Enable the further implementation of UN and Regional Charters and Conventions on civil, political, social and economic rights to which they are party and promote the ratification of other instruments in this area.

4. With a view to contributing to the above objectives:

(a) The EU will co-operate with partners in promoting and supporting their political reforms on the basis of universal principles, shared values and the Neighbourhood Action Plans, in accordance with national priorities, building on the commitment countries in the region have demonstrated to reform, including in the Tunis Declaration;

(b) In this context the EU will establish a substantial financial Facility to support willing
Mediterranean partners in carrying out their reforms, taking into account that successful reforms must develop from within the societies of the region.

(c) Euro-Mediterranean partners will meet internationally agreed standards in the conduct of elections. In this context they will discuss the possibility of developing, on a voluntary basis and upon request of the country concerned, joint co-operation and exchange of experience in the field of elections.

(d) Euro-Mediterranean partners will deepen dialogue on Human Rights issues in the framework of the Association Agreements; representatives in the permanent missions at UN Headquarters shall conduct informal exchanges of views before the meetings of the UN Commission on Human Rights and of the UN General Assembly where appropriate.

(e) Euro-Mediterranean Partners will take measures to achieve gender equality, preventing all forms of discrimination and ensuring the protection of the rights of women,

(f) Euro-Mediterranean partners will take action to implement the agreed Code of Conduct on Countering Terrorism

5. Euro-Mediterranean partners will develop and deepen dialogue on ESDP and security issues with a view to strengthening co-operation, on a voluntary basis in conflict prevention, partnership building measures and crisis management activities, and also on civil protection and natural disaster prevention;

6. To implement the relevant paragraphs of the Barcelona Declaration as stated in paragraph four of the Statement for the 10th Anniversary Summit.

The EU is also prepared to examine appropriate technical assistance in the field of clearing areas affected by land mines.

Sustainable Socio-Economic Development and Reform

7. To work towards creating more job opportunities for the increasing numbers of young people across the region, reducing regional poverty rates and closing the prosperity gap and raising GDP growth rates, Euro-Mediterranean partners will undertake measures to achieve:

(a) An improved business climate, in particular for SMEs, including by reducing regulatory and administrative obstacles to the creation and operation of businesses, as well as the time taken to create a new business;

(b) Increased access to bank lending by the private sector through consolidating and liberalising the financial sector, improving financial supervision and facilitating cooperation between financial institutions;

(c) Improved management and upgrading of public institutions;

(d) Consolidated macro-economic stability and improved public finance management;

(e) Strengthened social protection systems to ensure a basic standard of living for the most vulnerable;

(f) Developed national capabilities in the field of scientific and technological research and innovation to establish a knowledge based society through increased co-operation with and access to relevant European programmes and institutions;

(g) Better socio-economic inclusion, in particular in order to face social consequences of sectoral restructuring;

(h) A significant increase in the percentage of women in employment in all Euro-Mediterranean partner countries;

(i) Increased labour force productivity through greater access to vocational and technical training and measures to encourage technology transfer from European partners. An increased role for the private sector in financing and training within the workplace;
(j) An increase in the region’s domestic investment and of its share of global foreign direct investment, particularly in non-oil sectors, by inter alia improving its investment climate and supporting efforts to attract foreign and domestic investment that contribute to the creation of new jobs in the region

(k) An increase in the percentage of the labour force working in the private sector;

(l) An increase in north-south and south-south regional or sub regional co-operation through financial assistance in fields of mutual interest.

8. With a view to contributing to the above objectives and based on the Barcelona Declaration, Euro-Mediterranean partners will:

(a) Design and implement a road map, the components of which should be developed in a
comprehensive way, in accordance with the provisions of the Association Agreements, for the creation of a Free Trade Area by 2010. This road map includes:

i. The progressive liberalisation of trade in agriculture, processed agricultural products and fisheries products, with a possible selected number of exceptions and timetables for gradual and asymmetrical implementation, taking into account the differences and individual characteristics of the agricultural sector in different countries, building on the Euromed Association Agreements and regional free trade agreements, based on the Rabat roadmap. Non-tariff aspects of agricultural trade liberalisation should be properly dealt with, along with other issues such as rural development, agricultural productivity and quality, as well as sustainable development. Negotiations will start with partner countries as soon as possible.

ii. The progressive liberalisation of trade in services taking into account the non binding
Framework Protocol adopted in Istanbul in 2004, in order to open negotiations on a
voluntary basis on agreements on services and establishment of partner countries as soon as possible.

(b) Advocate the acceleration of the conclusion of free trade agreements with each other, and promote other regional agreements and bilateral trade agreements; and work for the entry into force of the Agadir Agreement at the latest by the end of 2005

(c) Take advantage of the adoption of the Pan-Euro-Mediterranean protocol on cumulation of origin as a step towards promoting intra and inter-regional integration.

(d) Approximate standards, technical legislation and conformity assessment, and provide support and assistance to that end, so as to pave the way for the negotiations of Acceptance and Cooperation Assessment Agreements on Industrial Products (ACAAs) and the elimination of technical obstacles to commerce at the latest by 2010;

(e) Assess in December 2006 the possibility of the incorporation of an EIB majority owned subsidiary dedicated to the Mediterranean partner countries on the basis of an evaluation of FEMIP’s performance

(f) Apply the principles of the Euro-Mediterranean Charter for Enterprise and assess together their implementation;

(g) Take measures to promote the conditions to allow a substantial increase in the European investment rate in southern Mediterranean partner countries;

(h) Encourage the increase of the investment rate in the region by supporting regional programmes and networks towards this end. Establish an ad hoc group to examine ways and means of enhancing investment flows across the Mediterranean region and monitor progress.

(i) Strengthen impact analysis of economic reforms and co-operation in the region.

(j) Promote environmental sustainability and implement the Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development. To develop as soon as possible a road map for de-polluting the Mediterranean by 2020, based on the recommendations of Euromed Environment Ministers using inter alia the MSSD and the UNEP Mediterranean Action Plan towards this end, while providing adequate financial and technical assistance to this end. The goal should be to tackle all the major sources of pollution including industrial emissions, municipal waste and particularly urban wastewater. Exchange experience on sustainable development in the Baltic Sea, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
(k) Develop scientific and technological research and innovation and facilitate the transfer of technology in accordance with national legislation; implement the recommendations of the 2005 Euromed Dundalk Ministerial Conference on ICT; invite the competent EU authorities to extend the Eureka Programme to all Mediterranean partners;

(l) Launch by 2007 at least two projects implementing EU regional policy methodology in two pilot regions in the south and review the results with a view to making recommendations on future projects.

(m) Develop a regional transport infrastructure network and adopt a set of recommendations at the Marrakech Euromed Transport Ministerial Conference in December 2005 to boost transport cooperation.

(n) Implement sub-regional energy projects to promote a Euro-Mediterranean energy market, including the progressive integration of Mashrek-Maghreb electricity networks with the EU electricity network; the integration of Middle East gas networks, energy co-operation between Israel and the Palestinian Authority; and several important pipeline connections.

(o) Co-operate to enhance the impact of tourism on job creation, infrastructure development and inter-cultural understanding while ensuring environmental sustainability.

(p) Promote effective health cooperation as an essential factor for social and economic

Education and Socio-Cultural Exchanges

9. Recognising the crucial role of education for political, social and economic development, partners will improve equitable access to quality education in line with the Millennium Development Goals and the Education for All objectives. Euro-Mediterranean partners commit to undertake measures aiming to:

(a) Halve the number of illiterate female and male adults and children by 2010;

(b) Ensure equality of access to quality education at all levels for girl and boy students by 2015;

(c) Ensure that by 2015 all children complete at least primary education;

(d) Reduce disparities in educational achievement between Euro-Mediterranean states under internationally recognised education standards;

(e) Increase completion rates at the different education levels, particularly for girls and students with special needs;

(f) Enhance graduate employment through efficient, high quality higher education and greater cooperation across higher education and research.

(g) Increase awareness and understanding of the different cultures and civilisations of the region, including through conservation and restoration of cultural heritage.

10. With a view to contributing to the above objectives, Euro-Mediterranean partners will:

(a) Increase significantly funding devoted to education in the Mediterranean region through EU assistance and Mediterranean partners’ national plans and raise education as a priority sector within the ENPI;

(b) Increase enrolment rates through increasing the number of schools and rehabilitating existing schools, and by measures to stimulate demand including community involvement;

(c) Expand and improve illiteracy eradication and adult education programmes across society with special focus on females;

(d) Expand and improve education opportunities for girls and women, as a basic right;

(e) Work to strengthen the quality and relevance to the labour market of primary and secondary education and training by increasing the effectiveness of the school system, promoting skills, innovation and active self-learning, providing continuous education and training for the teaching force, making appropriate use of educational materials and information technology and e-learning, and through the monitoring of quality assurance, including support for participation in international assessments (e.g. TIMSS);

(f) Support market based reform of Technical and Vocational Education and Training, the
involvement of commerce and industry, and rationalisation of qualifications;

(g) Enhance the capabilities of universities and higher learning institutions, including by
encouraging networking between them within the Euro-Mediterranean region, and improve the relevance of their programmes to labour market demands and the knowledge-based society;

(h) Introduce a standard of university education qualification transferable within the Euro-Mediterranean region, encourage distance education and electronic communications and promote student exchanges;

(i) Increase access to the internet and create a Virtual Library to increase the accessibility of textbooks, reference books, publications and documents including in the original Arabic and through translating between Arabic and European languages
(j) Support the work of the Anna Lindh Euro-Mediterranean Foundation for the Dialogue Between Cultures to improve intercultural understanding through regular dialogue, promotion of exchanges and mobility between people at all levels;

(k) Work to increase the involvement of civil society in the Euro-Med partnership,

(l) Launch a substantial scholarships scheme for university students from Euro-Mediterranean
Partner countries and increase mobility grants for Higher Education staff;

(m) Strengthen youth dialogue through the Euromed Youth Platform and promote youth exchanges.

(n) Co-operate to combat discrimination, racism and xenophobia and to increase tolerance, understanding and respect of all religions and cultures

(o) Enhance the role of the media for the development of intercultural dialogue, including by supporting the setting up of multicultural and multilingual channels and portals.

Migration, Social Integration, Justice and Security

11. Acknowledging that Migration, Social Integration, Justice and Security are issues of common interest in the Partnership, and should be addressed through a comprehensive and integrated approach, the Euro-Mediterranean partnership will enhance co-operation in these fields to:

(a) Promote legal migration opportunities, work towards the facilitation of the legal movement of individuals, recognising that these constitute an opportunity for economic growth and a mean of improving links between countries, fair treatment and integration policies for legal migrants, and facilitate the flow of remittance transfers and address ‘brain drain’;

(b) Reduce significantly the level of illegal migration, trafficking in human beings and loss of life through hazardous sea and border crossings;

(c) Continue to pursue the modernisation and efficiency of the administration of justice and facilitate access to justice by citizens,

(d) Reinforce judicial co-operation, including on cross border issues;

(e) Facilitate solutions to problems arising from mixed marriage disputes and child custody cases and encourage cooperation in accordance with the principle of the UN Convention of 1989 on the Rights of the Child and national legislation.

(f) Promote the ratification and further implementation of the relevant UN conventions on combating organised crime and drugs, and improve co-operation by law enforcement agencies.

12. With a view to contributing to the above objectives Euro-Mediterranean partners will:

(a) Hold a Ministerial meeting to discuss all issues pertinent to migration. And hold an expert senior officials meeting to prepare the Ministerial and discuss other issues of relevance.

(b) Develop mechanisms for practical co-operation and sharing experience on managing migration flows humanely, deepen dialogue with countries of origin and transit and explore options for providing assistance for countries of origin and transit.

(c) Promote schemes for safer, easier, less expensive channels for the efficient transfer of migrants’ remittances, encourage active contacts with expatriate communities to maintain their participation in the development process in their country of origin,;

(d) Develop ways to assist capacity building for those national institutions in partner countries dealing with expatriates;

(e) Promote legal migration opportunities and integration of migrants;

(f) Enhance cooperation to fight illegal migration. This cooperation should involve all aspects of illegal migration, such as the negotiation of different kinds of readmission agreements, the fight against human trafficking and related networks as well as other forms of illegal migration, and capacity building in border management and migration.

(g) The Euromed Partners welcome the convening of a Euro-African Conference on Migration.

(h) Develop contacts, training and technical assistance for judicial and legal professionals, building on the Euromed Justice Programme, the ENP Action Plans and other agreed multilateral and bilateral instruments, with the participation of the concerned Mediterranean partners in the design and implementation process;

(i) Develop contacts, training and technical assistance for police and law enforcement officers, building on ENP Action Plans, other agreed instruments and the Euromed Police Programme, encouraging networks in the Euromed region and drawing on the expertise of Europol with the participation of the concerned Mediterranean partners in the design and implementation process;


The countries of the Euro-Mediterranean partnership, guided by the principles and objectives of the Barcelona Declaration, are united in the struggle against terrorism. The threat that terrorism poses to the lives of our citizens remains serious and terrorist attacks seriously impair the enjoyment of human rights. We remain determined to strengthen co-operation and coordination to respond to this global challenge. Today, we reiterate our total condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations and our determination to eradicate it and to combat its sponsors.

We have exerted considerable effort and had significant success in combating terrorism. We must continue to prevent terrorists accessing money and weapons, to disrupt their plans and disrupt their networks and to bring them to justice, by strengthening international co-operation. Our response must remain proportionate and solidly anchored within international and domestic legal frameworks that ensure respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. We must not imperil the democratic values to which we are committed.

We confirm that we will:

- implement in full all Security Council resolutions addressing the issue of terrorism,
ensuring respect for the Charter of the United Nations, international law and international humanitarian law.
- strive to achieve the ratification and implementation of all 13 UN Counter-Terrorism
- welcome the work on the development of the UNSG’s strategy in the fight against terrorism and co-operate with UN anti terrorism bodies;
- encourage the full implementation of the standards established by the Financial Action Task Force;
- exchange information on a voluntary basis on terrorists and their support networks, in
accordance with international and national law;
- work bilaterally and in accordance with national legislation to develop our effective and operational co-operation to disrupt networks and bring individuals involved in terrorist acts to justice;
- refuse asylum to terrorists and deny them safe haven in accordance with international law;
- share expertise and best practices on countering terrorism on a voluntary basis, including through technical assistance;
- ensure respect for human rights in the fight against terrorism in accordance with
international law;
- Consider convening a high level conference under the auspices of the UN to formulate an international response to terrorism in all its aspects and manifestations, following agreement on a comprehensive convention on international terrorism.

Terrorism can never be justified. If we are to succeed in the long term in enabling
international institutions, governments to stop terrorism we need to address all its causes. We recognise the links between peace, security, social and economic development and human rights. We will continue to do all we can to resolve conflict, end occupation, confront oppression, reduce poverty, promote good governance and human right, improve intercultural understanding and ensure respect for all religions. Such actions serve directly the interests of the people of the Euromed region and work against the interests of the terrorists and their networks.

We confirm that we will:

- condemn terrorism in all its manifestations without qualification.
- reject any attempts to associate terrorism with any nation, culture or religion;
- prohibit and prevent the incitement of terrorist acts through the adoption of appropriate measures and in accordance with international law and the national legislation of each country;
- implement the commitments we have made on security and development in our Work
- work together to conclude the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism, including a legal definition of terrorist acts, before the end of the 60th session of the United Nations General Assembly;
- encourage moderation, tolerance, dialogue and understanding amongst our societies;
- co-ordinate our work to identify the factors which contribute to the terrorist threat and share experiences and expertise on how to address them.

As well as reducing the terrorist threat, we must lessen our vulnerability to attack by protecting our citizens. We have taken huge steps in improving security over recent years, notably in protecting aviation. We will also develop further efforts in the field of maritime security.

We must also be prepared to minimise the consequences of attacks. We have conducted
exercises and anticipated such a moment. We will share the lessons of past attacks and provide technical and other assistance where appropriate.

We confirm that we will:

· strengthen our national and collective mechanisms to deal with the aftermath of terrorist attacks;
· share experience on managing the consequences of terrorist attacks and build contacts as appropriate;
· consider inviting one another to participate in or observe our emergency exercises;
· help victims of terrorism and provide assistance to the competent authorities in dealing with the consequences of a major attack.

Brussels,12 05 2005
European Union
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